Biyernes, Mayo 20, 2011

Case Study

TED Case Studies

Nata de Coco Boom and the Philippines

TED Home PageAbout TEDResearch ProjectsSortCases
TEDCasesIssue PapersSite Index

 I. Identification

1. The Issue

This case study is about nata de coco, a chewy, translucent, indigenous dessert in the Philippines that is very popular in Japan. In 1993, Japanese people, especially young people considered nata de coco a popular dessert, however, its popularity declined because their interest moved to another trendy dessert. Small coconut farmers and those who started manufacturing nata de coco in the Philippines began to export more nata de coco to Japan in 1993. Though Japan imported 90 percent of the Philippines nata de coco, its supply did not meet the demand for the dessert in Japan. About one year later, the product's astonishing popularity quieted. Environmental and unemployment problems arose because of Japan was importing nata de coco from the Philippines. Moreover, the end of the nata de coco boom seemed the best time to focus on the poverty and underdevelopment in the Philippines, whose origin could be dated back to a century ago.

2. Description

A. IntroductionThis case study is about coconuts in the Philippines. About 5 years ago, nata de coco, a dessert which is made from coconuts, was a big fad in Japan.@@However, problems arose because the production of nata de coco could not catch up with its demand in Japan and, after the nata de coco boom in Japan was over, people moved to another dessert from overseas. As a result of this whim, many problems have arisen in the Philippines.

B. Definition
Nata de coco is a chewy, translucent, traditional Philippine dessert which is "coconut gel-product from coconut water by bacterial fermentation-prepared." (Antarindo Trading Web Page) In 1992, this dessert was introduced to Japan through its use in diet foods enjoyed by young girls. (Metcalfe, 1994: 76) Moreover, "Japanese believed it protects the body against colon cancer," and it became "a boon for slimmers." (Metcalfe) Nata de coco is high in fiber, good for the digestive system, and it is low in calories and contains no cholesterol. Its peak moment of popularity in Japan occurred in 1993. Nata de cococould be found everywhere at that time. Many companies manufacturing nata de coco rivaled each other for new nata de coco products.

C. Positive Conditions
The nata de coco boom in Japan brought a huge impact on the small labor-intensive cottage industry in the Philippines. Nata de coco was usually produced at coconut farmers' houses in the countryside, and it was an indigenous dessert. However, it suddenly became one of the most important exports. "Filipinos are busy capitalizing on a sudden foreign craving for an indigenous coconut by-product." (Metcalfe)The Manila Bulletin described nata de coco as a 'Miracle Product'. (Metcalfe) The nata de coco boom was a stroke of luck for the Philippines, who had been going through export an economical depression. The cottage industry attracted many Filipino workers to turn over and get into its industry because the way of making nata de coco is simple; it does not take high-tech machinery and a lot of money to produce. The cottage industry added to its factory and labor, and it put its utmost into nata de coco production.@@
Metcalfe mentions that "[a]t Martinez Nata de Coco in Lucena City, production increased by 400%, from 500 to 2,000 trays a month. Expansion is limited not by demand, which appears to be limitless, but by space." (Metcalfe)Furthermore, "In Los Banos, a major producing area, the crime rate has dropped dramatically," because the people committing crimes were working to make nata de coco.(Metcalfe)

D. Negative Conditions
It is the rule that `the Golden Age' has never been maintained, and the nata de coco boom in Japan was also not an exception. Japanese people, especially young people, turned their interest to a different dessert which was also from a foreign country. Japanese makers followed the trend and moved their focus to the new dessert. In the Philippines, people might be depressed as they looked at a stack of nata de coco. Its countryside returns to silence as though people had been busy making the "Miracle Product' was a dream. More importantly, the Philippines developed many problems which were not there during the boom. For example, producing nata de coco requires a kind of strong acetic acids. Since nata de coco was made at small private factories in the countryside, people did not pay attention to the effects of the acetic acids, and they discharged it into the soil. That caused dermatitis and soil acidity. (Futakami Jirou's World Web Page) Moreover, the end of the boom uncovered big problems in the Philippines, such as poverty and underdevelopment.

E. Coconut Industry in the Philippines
The Philippines is the largest coconut-producing country in the world. (Sakakibara, 1994: 88) It is said that there are 330 million coconut farmers in the Philippines, which is equivalent to one out of three people in the primary industries engage in coconut farms. (Sakakibara: 40) Price movement easily affects the income of coconut framers and even though a farmer has ten coconut trees, he could earn his bread at one time. (Sakakibara: 40) The coconut industry in the Philippines are jeopardized in intensifying competitions because 88 percent are small scale farmers, less than five hectares, and they do not have a unified management strategy. (Sakakibara: 90-91)

F. History

a. The History of Coconut Plantations
"[An American adventurer] met with the elders of [a] Muslim village and told them he wanted to turn their cow-grazing land into a coconut plantation.cc" (Tiglao, 1999: 63-5) The coconut plantation in the Philippines began from a century ago, right after the Spanish left. (Tiglao) Tiglao insists that "the headlong rush into coconut farming in the Philippines early this century has left the country impoverished and underdevelopment." (Tiglao) The more Christians migrated to the Muslim village, the more lands were replaced by coconut plantations, and then, coconut trees dominated in the rural Muslim areas. (Tiglao) In 1642, the Spanish colonizers ordered each native to plant 200 of coconut trees for "caulk[ing] their galleons, and its husks," and "making ships' rigging," in 1930, 150,000 hectares, or 5% of arable land, were coconut trees. (Tiglao) Today, three million hectares, a quarter of the country's agricultural land, were covered by coconut plantations. (Tiglao)

b. The Rise of coconut demand
Until in the 19th century, two everyday commodities, soap and margarine, were made from beef fat, mainly from America. (Tiglao) Since blizzards and drought hit in the United States, and the cattle industry received huge damage, soap and margarine manufacturers used vegetable oils as less-expensive alternates. (Tiglao) Then, coconut came into the spotlight. European countries took coconuts from their Asian colonies, and American soap manufacturers had their eyes on the Philippines, the U.S. is newest colony. (Tiglao)
Coconut trees were planted with unrecorded speed in the Philippines. The area of coconut plantations overtook that of a more famous export crop, sugarcane by 1930. (Tiglao) After two world wars ended, not only soap and margarine, but coconut oil became popular with advances in chemistry, and coconut oil became one of the biggest export items in the Philippines. "Until 1970s, coconut oil continued as the country's biggest export product, accounting for 35% of the total." (Tiglao)

c. The Root of Poverty and Underdevelopment
Coconut exports bring the Philippines lots of foreign exchange, and it is very important to its income. Coconut planting, however, results in massive deforestation, and due to the fact that coconut trees dominate in certain areas, the ecosystem must be changed. "But perhaps the most destructive legacy of the West's demand for coconut oil is the Philippines' poverty and economic underdevelopment." (Tiglao)Even if the Philippines has got profits from coconut exports, the profits go to traders and exporters, not a third of the country's population, farmers. (Tiglao) Now, "the value of coconut oil has fallen in real terms through the decades, partly as a result of increased production of substitutes such as American and Chinese soybean and cottonseed oil as well as sunflower-seed oil from the former Soviet republics."(Tiglao) Tiglao concludes that "[e]ven now, the country faces tremendous problems that emerged a century ago, because of the West's cravings for soap and margarine." (Tiglao)
As I mentioned before, the nata de coco boom in Japan in 1993 was unforeseen luck for poor coconut farmers. Yet, farmers were eventually at the mercy of the boom. Practically, Japan exploited the developing country, the Philippines, where the West has already formed the relationship of exploitation.

G. Conclusion
This case study about nata de coco is a good example of the impact of trade which can lead to changing the environment and culture of people and places. Generally, less developed countries sacrifice themselves for more developed countries. Even when the colonial period was over, and almost all colonies obtained independence, the exploitative bond has still remained. The Philippines has given up its rich forest, and then, the Philippines has exported coconut to get foreign exchange. Still, the people are poor as long as the exploitative bond will not cut off.

3. Related Cases

4. Draft Author:

Hiromi Inoi (October 11, 1999)

 IILegal Clusters

5. Discourse and Status:

AGRee and ALLEGE(a)tionWhether buying nata de coco or not is only customers' choice.

6. Forum and Scope:

Japan and BILATeral

7. Decision Breadth:

2 (The philippines and Japan)

8. Legal Standing:


 III. Geographic Clusters

9. Geographic Locations

a. Geographic Domain: Asia
b. Geographic Site: East Asia
c. Geographic Impact: The Phillipines

10. Sub-National Factors:


11. Type of Habitat:

TROPicalThe climate of the Philippines is tropical and is strongly affected by monsoon (rain-bearing) winds. The climate has two seasons, wet and dry. Although it is not exactly same throughout the country, it is the dry season from December to May. The first three months is cool; the second three months, hot. The rest of the year is the wet season. From June through December, typhoons, which basically come from the southeast often hit in the Philippines. Heavy typhoons frequently cause floods or high winds which lead to perils of life and property. (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online)

 IV. Trade Clusters

12. Type of Measure:

SUBSIDYPhilippine's coconut trade has been disputed at World Trade Organization (WTO) twice. Both cases were that the Philippines complained "measures affecting desiccated coconut" toward Brazil. The latest dispute was settled in March 1997. "The Philippines claims that the countervailing duty imposed by Brazil on the Philippine's exports of desiccated coconut is inconsistent with WTO and GATT rules." (WTO Web Page) This dispute resulted in that Brazil won after the Philippines appealed.

13. Direct v. Indirect Impacts:


14. Relation of Trade Measure to Environmental Impact

a. Directly Related to Product: Yes: Coconut
b. Indirectly Related to Product: No
c. Not Related to Product: Nod. Related to Process: Yes: Habitat Loss

15. Trade Product Identification:


16. Economic Data

The amount of nata de coco export to Japan was a fed was only 314 million dollars a year three years before when nata de coco, but in 1993, it increased sharply, and it reached 836 million dollars only in November, 1993. It was more than 200 times than in 1990. (Yomiuri Shinbun newspaper, Dec. 28, 1993)"The export of Nata from the Philippines has risen from approximately $1 million per year to more than $26 million per year as of 1993 (see Philippine Daily Inquirer "Agriculture" Vol. 20. March 3, 1994). Nata earned the distinction as among the 30 best hit products among Japanese consumers for 1993." (The University of Texas at Austin Botany Department Web Page) 

Table 1: Coconut

Source: PHILIPPINES Economic Indicators Online, National Economic and Development Autority

Export Coconut Products503447643532639989730853832
Export Coconut Oil361299481358475862571673706
Export Copta Meal Cake545553455367565336

Table 2: Employment

Source: PHILIPPINES Economic Indicators Online, National Economic and Development Autority

Agriculture Employment (%)46.744.945.345.745.143.442.840.839.2
Umemployment Rate8.310.

17. Impact of Trade Restriction:


18. Industry Sector:


19. Exporters and Importers:

The Philippines and Japan

 V. Environment Clusters

20. Environmental Problem Type:

  • Habitate LossThe Philippines was originally rich in natural rain forests. Coconut planting, however, contributed to massive deforestation. Most part of the forest turned into coconut plantations to earn foreign exchange. "In 1910, forests covered 66% of the Philippines' total land area; now, it's only 20%." (Tiglao) Due to the deforestation, coconut trees have become a dominance of the plants in the Philippines. It has led to destroying biological diversity. Then, it has a bad influence on the ecosystem.

  • Land PollutionA kind of strong acetic acids is the necessity for the process of producing nata de coco. Because of the fact that making nata de coco depended on the small cottage industry, owners of the small factories did not dispose of the acetic acids properly. Therefore, the discharge made the soil acidified.

    21. Name, Type, and Diversity of Species

    Name: Coconut palm (species Cocos nucifera)
    Type: plantDiversity: Coconut palms thrive best close to "the sea on low-lying areas a few feet above high water where there is circulating groundwater and an ample rainfall." (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online) Small plantations are the main place where most of the world's coconuts are produced. The South Pacific countries sach as the Philippines and Indonesia, are the typical breeding area of coconut palms. (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online)

    22. Resource Impact and Effect:

    HIGH and PRODuct

    23. Urgency and Lifetime:

    MEDium and 100s of years"The deforestation rate of the Philippines now pegged at 25 hectares an hour or 219,000 hectares a year. Experts say the country can expect its forests to be gone in less than 40 years." (Honda: Philippines Sugar Case)

    24. Substitutes:


  • Nate from Strawberry juice by Acetobacter xylinymNata of nata de coco make from strawberry juice instead of coconut milk. "Nata de coco is a pellicle which is formed by a species of Acetobacter on the surface of coconut milk medium." The nata needs several ingredients: strawberry juice, Acetobacter sp. NA-2, which is a bacterial strain, glucose and acetic acid. „ŸInvestigation by Hiroshi Nakayama, Kazuo Mochizuki, Toshihiro Suzuki, Shingo Dohi, Atsuhiro Kato and Susumu Tanifuji (Shizuoka Industrial Research Institute Web Page)

     VI. Other Factors

    25. Culture:

    Yes*The Reason of Nata de Coco Boom
    Japanese people tend to seek brand-new things. A certain thing attracts a great deal of public attention for a only limited time. Nata de coco was such a example. Especially foreign desserts become a boom one after another roughly every year. Tiramisu from Italy and Tapioca from southern countries are such desserts. During the boom, people, the media and makers make much of the thing. Yet, after the boom is gone, the thing in favor right before comes to out of favor.
    *Who Create a Boom?
    It is ten to one that young women, from high school girls to women in their early 20s, lead these fashions in Japan. They are supersensitive to new products. As a result of this, makers try to catch their attention, and improve products so that women may come to really like them. Once a product comes into vogue, it is given a big space in magazines and news. Then, it becomes more and more popular. After a while, its popularity, however, decreases because of the emergence of other new products.

    26. Trans-Boundary Issues:


    27. Rights:

    YesCoconut farmers have been in severe conditions for a long time. Historically, the surcharge system was enforced under the Marcos Administration in 1973.(Yamamoto: 1992) The system was harsh for coconut farmers. Most of the farmers owned a small-scale of farm; hence, the system had a great influence on them, and their income of the farmers dropped dramatically. 72 percent of the farmers lived below the standard of living in the Philippines. Although the system was discontinued in 1980, farmers still live in poor conditions, because they rely on the market price of coconut for their income. In 1990, the price of coconut oil came to be less expensive than that of soybean oil, which always competes with coconut oil. What is worse, coconut trees have become superannuated; so, the yield has declined recently. (Sakakibara: 90) The poor farmers cannot do anything to their old coconut trees, but just keep extracting the essence.
    Suddenly, in 1993, the demand of coconut became rising, as if it were an saviour of coconut farming. The nata de coco boom in Japan caused the increase of coconut export in Philippines. Many Filipinos launch into the promising industry, the produce of nata de coco, in order to live better life. However, today when the boom is regarded as a frail dream, people lost their job. They have trouble with finding new job while everyone is struggling with unemployment. What is more, even during the boom, many Filipinos faced hard time, since Japanese companies attempted to force them to produce with very low wages.The most essential problem, however, is the structure of North-South Gap. The developed countries exploit the developing countries. Always, crops and raw materials in the developing countries export are cheaper than what developed countries export, like cars and computers. This structure makes poor people poor consistently. The Philippines, of course, is on the developing countries' side.

    28. Relevant Literature

    Web Pages



  • Miyerkules, Mayo 18, 2011

    My Autobiography



    My 1 year old christianing

    Me at  2 years old 

    Me at my 5 years old age
    My Graduation day in my kindergarten 
    My 8 years of age

    Me in our recognition day in grade III

    Me and my mother in my recognition day

    My graduation day in elementar

    Me in our J.S prom in high school

    My present picture at  my 21 years of age

        My name is Jessica G. Delegenio,and i'm 21 years old and i'm residing in Magtanggol Science City of Muñoz Nueva  Ecija. I was born on February 4, 1990, in Navotas Metro Manila Hospital.
        In our happy Family i am the youngest daugther of Erlinda G. Delegenio and Roque G. Delegenio my father and my mother name.
        In my existence in this world i'm very thankful and proud that i'm belong in Delegenio Family.Because i always think that because of my lovable and supportive family i become a good person today, and also i've learn a lot to them. My brother Mark Anthony G. Delegenio, he is the one who influence me to learn well, that i remember that he teach me to draw and he also encourage me to read stories which we were laughing after we read the story that i don't lknow what is the reason why we are laughing but i only know that time we are enjoying what we are doing. My sister Roselyn G. Delegenio, she is my funny sister that i remember that she always giving advice to me to be behave  for our parents didn't make angry with me. My mother Erlinda G. Delegenio, my lovable mother that she always caring to us and serve and teach a lot in our life especially when we experience sad moment in our life, and also my mother for me is the best mother that i've LOVE most.My father Roque R. Delegenio, my hard working father that he didn't allow us his (family) to suffer hard ship so he always working for he can support and give our  everyday needs .For me i get my characteristic of being deligent to my father that i've also love most.
              In my 21 years of age i also discovered to my development my different likes and dislikes in my life,  in foods,colors and  habits.
             In food, the food that i want to eat mostly is the cheese that its funny to other to hear that my very favorite food is cheese. I don't know why i love to eat cheese but i only know cheese is my favorite food to eat. In colors i want the color blue, because i think its fit to my characteristic of being silent or mostly quit that i want  sometimes to be alone that for me i feel relaxed, and the color blue for me produces a peace in mind to my self . In about my habits i am mostly / doing drawing and hearing relaxing music that i frequently draw the beautiful ambiance of a forest that have many with a river and falls, that i always draw this because i am a nature lover, and about to a relaxing music i wanted to hear are the love songs that it feels me not in love but it refresh my mind everyday i hear those love song like the Song of "Six Part Invention " Only for You and the song of " Side A" All I need. This are all my likes that i discovered. About my dislike i have million 's of thing's of dislike that i can't afford to write it all here. So  if you want to now my dislike you better Know me first .

              Today i'm studying at (CLSU ) Central Luzon State University in Science City of Munoz Nueva Ecija. I'm 3rd year Colloge student in College of Education Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Social Studies.In my 3 years studying in CLSU i learned a lot of knew things and i experience a lot of sad moments that it developed my self as a matured and become strong and don't give  to the problems and trials that come in my life. And also in my college life i learn to have a fighting spirit and be confident to face the people and have a faith in God. And also in my college life i"ve met a lot of  different person and also a lot of friends. My friend / bestfriend  and sister that i met in my second year college was Katrina. She is my caring, helpful and sweet best friend that she always stay and help me at all time: but from now she was not already studying which is i didn't forget the day that she was force to left me because her parents can't afford her to support to her studies.

    Linggo, Mayo 15, 2011

    The Articles of the Philippine Independence, the Philippine Revolution,Katipunan,

    Miyerkules, Mayo 11 2011

     "The Philippine Independence"

    written in Spanish 
    File:Philippine independence.jpg
    English: Philippine Declaration of Independence, June 12, 1898
    12 June 1898
    National Library of the Philippines
    Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista

    On July 7, 1892, the day after Rizal's deportation was announced, Bonifacio and others founded the Katipunan, or in full, Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang [14] Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan ("Highest and Most Respected Society of the Children[15] of the Country[16]").[17] Thesecret society sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.[13][18] It was influenced by Freemasonry through its rituals and organization, and several members aside from Bonifacio were also Freemasons.[12] Within the society Bonifacio used the pseudonym May pag-asa ("There is Hope").[1]
    For a time, Bonifacio worked with both the Katipunan and La Liga Filipina. But La Liga Filipina eventually split because less affluent members like Bonifacio lost hope for peaceful reforms, and stopped their monetary aid.[12] Wealthier, more conservative members who still believed in peaceful reforms set up the Cuerpo de Compromisarios, which pledged continued support to the reformists in Spain. The radicals were subsumed into the Katipunan.[13] From Manila, the Katipunan expanded into several provinces, including BatangasLagunaCaviteBulacan,Pampanga, and Nueva Ecija.[19] Most of its members, called Katipuneros, came from the lower and middle classes, with many of its local leaders being prominent figures in their municipalities.[20] At first exclusively male, membership was later extended to females, with Bonifacio's wife Gregoria de Jesús as a leading member.[21]
    From the beginning, Bonifacio was one of the chief Katipunan officers, though he did not become its Supremo (supreme leader) or Presidente Supremo (Supreme President)[22] until 1895. Bonifacio was the third head of the Katipunan after Deodato Arellano and Román Basa. Prior to this, he served as the society's comptroller and then its fiscal.[23][24] The society had its own laws, bureaucratic structure and elective leadership. For each province it involved, the Katipunan Supreme Council coordinated provincial councils in charge of public administration and military affairs and local councils in charge of affairs on the district or barrio level. Bonifacio was a member and eventually head of the KatipunanSupreme Council.[5][25]
    Within the society, Bonifacio developed a strong friendship with Emilio Jacinto who served as his adviser and confidant, as well as a member of the Supreme Council. Bonifacio adopted Jacinto's Kartilla primer as the official teachings of the society in place of his own Decalogue which he judged as inferior. Bonifacio, Jacinto and Pio Valenzuela collaborated on the society's organ Kalayaan (Freedom), which had only one printed issue. Bonifacio wrote several pieces for the paper, including the poem Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupà (roughly, "Love for the homeland[26]) under the pseudonym Agapito Bagumbayan. The publication of Kalayaan in March 1896 led to a great increase in membership. The Katipunan spread throughout Luzon, to Panay in the Visayas and even as far as Mindanao.[27] From less than 300 members in January 1896,[19] it had about 30,000 to 40,000 by August.[27]
    The rapid increase of Katipunan activity drew the suspicion of the Spanish authorities. By early 1896, Spanish intelligence was aware of the existence of a seditious secret society. Suspects were kept under surveillance and arrests were made. On May 3, Bonifacio held a general assembly of Katipunan leaders in Pasig where they debated when to start their revolt. While Bonifacio wanted to revolt as soon as possible,Emilio fAguinaldo o Cavite expressed reservations due to their lack of firearms. The consensus was to consult José Rizal in Dapitan before launching their revolt. Bonifacio sent Pio Valenzuela to Rizal, who was against a premature revolution and recommended prior preparation.

    Philippine Revolution

    The Spanish authorities confirmed the existence of the PAQUINGAN on August 19, 1896. Hundreds of Filipino suspects, both innocent and guilty, were arrested and imprisoned for treason.[osé Rizal was then on his way to Cuba to serve as a doctor in the Spanish colonial army, in exchange for his release from Dapitaboard a ship in
    [When the news broke, Bonifacio first tried to convince Rizal, quarantined aanila Bay, to escape and join the imminent revolt. Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and Guillermo Masangkay disguised themselves as sailors and went to the pier where Rizal's ship was anchored. Jacinto personally met with Rizal, who rejected their rescue offer.[32] Rizal himself was later arrested, tried and executed.

    Eluding an intensive manhunt, Bonifacio called thousands of katipunan members to a mass gathering in Caloocan, where they decided to start their revolt. The event, marked by the tearing of cedulas (community tax certificates) was later called the "Cry of Balintawak" or "Cry of Pugad Lawin"; the exact location and date of the Cry are disputed.The Supreme Council of the Katipunan declared a nationwide armed revolution against Spain and called for a simultaneous coordinated attack on the capital Manila on August 29. Bonifacio appointed generals to lead rebel forces to Manila. Other Katipunan councils were also informed of their plans. Before hostilities erupted, Bonifacio reorganized the Katipunan into an open de facto revolutionary government, with him as President and commander-in-chief (or generalissimo[of the rebel army and the Supreme Council as his cabinet.[ On August 28, Bonifacio issued the following general proclamation:
    This manifesto is for all of you. It is absolutely necessary for us to stop at the earliest possible time the nameless oppositions being perpetrated on the sons of the country who are now suffering the brutal punishment and tortures in jails, and because of this please let all the brethren know that on Saturday, the 29th of the current month, the revolution shall commence according to our agreement. For this purpose, it is necessary for all towns to rise simultaneously and attack Manila at the same time. Anybody who obstructs this sacred ideal of the people will be considered a traitor and an enemy, except if he is ill; or is not physically fit, in which case he shall be tried according to the regulations we have put in force. Mount of Liberty, 28th August 1896 - ANDRÉS BONIFACIO
    On August 30, 1896, Bonifacio personally led an attack on San Juan del Monte to capture the town's powder magazine and water station (which supplied Manila). The defending Spaniards, outnumbered, fought a delaying battle until reinforcements arrived. Once reinforced, the Spaniards drove Bonifacio's forces back with heavy casualties. Bonifacio and his troops regrouped near Marikina, San Mateo and Montalban.[36]Elsewhere, fighting between rebels and Spanish forces occurred in Marikina 
    MandaluyongSampalocSanta AnaPandacanPaterosocan,[37] Makati and Taguig.[36] The conventional view among Filipino historians is that the planned general Katipunan offensive on Manila was aborted in favor of Bonifacio's attack on San Juan del Monte,[36][38] which sparked a general state of rebellion in the area.[39] However, more recent studies have advanced the view that the planned offensive did push through and the rebel attacks were integrated; according to this view, Bonifacio's San Juan del Monte battle was only a part of a bigger whole - an unrecognized "battle for Manila".Despite his reverses, Bonifacio was not completely defeated and was still considered a threat. Further, the revolt had spread to the surrounding provinces by the end of August.

    Article of  Ambeth Ocampo Philippine Daily